Workpackage 5


Diagnostic tools


The information gained from WP 3 and WP4 will be use in WP5 to develop novel diagnostic tools by determining expression patterns of selected list of genes involved in interaction mechanisms among multiple parasites and pesticides (WP3) and resistance genes (WP4). The BEE DOC will develop three levels of diagnostic tools. A research grade tool will be an extension to the quantitative-PCR array BEE PATH which uses 48 honeybee and pathogen genes in parallel.

We will extended this array, by completing the list of pathogens and including novel genes provided by WP3 and WP4 and will rely on the microarray technology. An extension grade diagnostic tool will be based on simple PCR based protocols. For example Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is widely used to screen for various genetic applications. Finally we will develop a field grade diagnostic tool for viral infections to be used by the beekeeper. These so-called dip-and–read sticks will be based on qualitative immuno-chromatography.